EM Wave Anomalies, 4th Schumann Resonance mode changes, and Pending Earthquakes
A Natural Warning System or Evidence of EM/Ionospheric Weapons?
1. Localized ionospheric disturbance over the earthquake epicentre and modifications of Schumann resonance electromagnetic fields
The impact of seismogenic ionosphere non-uniformity is considered on the Schumann resonance (SR) signals observed both in the vertical electric and two orthogonal horizontal magnetic field components. The model is able to interpret the anomalous signals observed in Japan in possible association with the earthquakes (EQs) in Taiwan. Changes in the SR intensity arise from a localized reduction of the ionosphere over the EQ epicentre. Signals in the regular Earth–ionosphere cavity are described by using the knee model of vertical conductivity profile. It is suggested that pre-seismic and seismic activity lowers the knee altitude by 20 km at the centre of disturbance, and the perturbation has the Gaussian radial dependence in the 1 Mm zone. The diffraction problem in the cavity with a localized disturbance is resolved by using the Stratton–Chu integral equation. The data of Optical Transient Detector are used to model the source distribution. A pronounced modification is obtained in the intensity around the fourth mode frequency in a form of abrupt spectral changes. The model data are found to be similar to observations, and properties of the model seismic anomalies are discussed.
2. The relationship between geophysical conditions and ELF amplitude in modulated heating experiments at HAARP: Modeling and experimental results
G Jin, M Spasojevic, MB Cohen… – … Space Physics (1978 …, 2011 – Wiley Online Library
 Experiments involving generation of extremely low frequency (ELF, up to 3 kHz) and very
low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) electromagnetic waves using modulated ionospheric heating
have been conducted since Getmantsev et al.. The technique of using high‐ …
3. Anomalous phenomena in Schumann resonance band observed in China before the 2011 Magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan†
 The anomalous phenomena in the Schumann Resonance (SR) band, possibly associated with the Tohoku-Oki earthquake (EQ), are studied based on the ELF observations at two stations in China. The anomaly appeared on 8 March 3 days prior to the main shock, and was characterized by an increase in the intensity at frequencies from the first mode to the fourth mode in both magnetic field components, different to the observations in Japan before large EQs in Taiwan. The abnormal behaviors of the North–south (NS) and East–west (EW) magnetic field components primarily appeared at 0000–0900 UT and 0200–0900 UT on 8 March respectively. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical method is applied to model the impact of seismic process on the ELF radio propagation. A partially uniform knee model of the vertical conductivity profile suggested by V. C. Mushtak is used to model the day-night asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity, and a locally EQ-induced disturbance model of the atmospheric conductivity is introduced. The atmospheric conductivity is assumed to increase around the epicenter according to the localized enhancement of total electron content (TEC) in the ionosphere. It is concluded that the SR anomalous phenomena before the Tohoku-Oki EQ have much to do with the exciting sources located at South America and Asia, and also with the localized distribution of the disturbed conductivity. This work is a further confirmation of the relationship of SR anomalies with large EQs, and has further concluded that the distortions in the SR band before large EQs may be caused by the irregularities located over the shock epicenter in the earth-ionosphere cavity by numerical method.
4. Studies on the anomalies in the behaviour of transmitted subionospheric VLF electromagnetic signals and the changes in the fourth Schumann resonance mode as signatures of two pending earthquakes
Some anomalies are observed in the subionospheric VLF electromagnetic (EM) signals at 19.8 kHz transmitted from North West Cape, Australia (lat: 21.82° S; long: 114.16° E) and 40 kHz from Fukushima, Japan (lat: 36.18° N, long: 139.85° E), recorded by VLF receivers near Kolkata (lat: 22.56° N, long: 88.5° E) during the occurrence of the two earthquakes at Andaman Island (lat:14.018° N, long: 92.92° E), India and other at South Coast of Honsu (lat: 34.78° N, long: 138.27° E), Japan. The analyses of these seismo-ionospheric VLF EM anomalies at these two frequencies during some days before and after the occurrence of earthquake on August 11, 2009 will be presented here. VLF-LF transient variations of significant magnitude in the form of spikes are observed few days prior to the day of occurrence of the earthquakes that continued several days more, then decaying gradually and finally ceased. Signals are examined to describe their connectivity with earthquakes. The enhancements of the amplitude and frequency of the fourth mode of Schumann resonance spectra have been detected during the occurrence of the two earthquakes, which will also be reported here
Studies on the anomalies in the behaviour of transmitted subionospheric VLF electromagnetic signals and the changes in the fourth Schumann resonance mode as signatures of two pending earthquakes – Springer
5. Artificial Ionospheric Layers during Pump Frequency Stepping Near the 4th Gyroharmonic at HAARP
E Sergeev, S Grach, A Shindin, E Mishin, P Bernhardt… – Physical review …, 2013 – APS
We report on artificial descending plasma layers created in the ionosphere F region by high-
power highfrequency (HF) radio waves from High-frequency Active Auroral Research
Program at frequencies f0 near the fourth electron gyroharmonic 4fce. The data come from …
6. Fast Convergence Algorithm for Earthquake Prediction Using SLF/ELF Horizontal Electric Dipole during Day and Night and Schumann Resonance
Electromagnetic wave radiation from a SLF/ELF horizontal electric dipole (HED) related to seismic activity is discussed. In order to estimate the effects on the electromagnetic waves associated with the seismic activity, SLF/ELF waves on the ground radiated from a possible seismic current source modeled as a electric dipole, are precisely computed by using a speeding numerical convergence algorithm. A theoretical calculation of the VLF/SLF electric wave propagating among the Earth-ionosphere cavity generally utilizes the full wave method to solve the model equation. The field in the cavity is comprehended as the sum of each wave mode. However, this method is very complex, and unsuitable to the ELF frequency band. In 1999, Barrick proposed an algorithm, which was only suitable to solve the electromagnetic problems under the ideal electric conductor condition. To solve the problems under the non-ideal electric conductor condition, we have further developed Barrick’s method and proposed a speeding numerical convergence algorithm. The spherical harmonic series expressions of electromagnetic fields excited by SLF/ELF HED in non-ideal Earth-ionosphere cavity are derived. The speed of this algorithm is faster thirty times than it of calculating directly the sum of the series. If it calculates directly the sum of the series, it needs 1,000 series items, while it needs only 200 series items by this algorithm. Our algorithm is compared with the second order spherical surface approximate algorithm, and two algorithms agree with each other very well. Therefore, our algorithm is correct. Schumann resonance is also verified.
7. Anomalous excitation of Schumann resonances and additional anomalous resonances before the 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake and the 2007 Noto Hantou Earthquake
We have carried out the observation of ULF/ELF electromagnetic waves below 50 Hz at Nakatsugawa (in Gifu Prefecture in Japan) with three component induction coil antennas (the permalloy of 1.2 m length with 1,00,000 turns of the copper wire) since 1998. We have observed the excitation of anomalous resonances possibly associated with earthquakes at Nakatasugawa station. In this paper, we analyzed the anomalous strong Schumann resonance and an additional anomalous resonance observed before the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake and the 2007 Noto Hantou earthquake. The intensity of a particular mode of the Schumann resonance increased before the large earthquake near the observation station, and decreased after the occurrence of earthquake. An excitation of another anomalous resonance was also observed at the frequency shifted by about 2 Hz from the typical frequency of the Schumann resonance. Since the temporal changes of the intensity of the anomalous Schumann resonance and another excited anomalous resonance were almost the same, there is a possibility that another anomalous resonance was related with the Schumann resonance. However, we need to consider a more convincible generation mechanism of anomalous resonances.
8. Monitoring Schumann resonance and other electromagnetic precursors of an earthquake with a virtual MIMO wireless sensor network
The frequency shift and amplitude change in Schumann resonance (SR) as a precursor of some moderate to strong earthquakes was observed and reported. Co-seismic SR variation could be occurring at even large magnitude and scale. In this study, we first model Schumann resonance associated with the occurrence of an earthquake and assess the SR variation recorded from an earth-based sensor network. Based on the computer simulation results, we then propose a wireless observation system to monitor SR as a potential precursor prior to an earthquake using a wireless sensor network (WSN). A WSN based on single antenna wireless sensor nodes are cooperated to establish a multiple-antenna WSN that is called virtual MIMO-WSN. Virtual MIMO-WSN is adjustable and tunable to monitor electromagnetic signals in different frequencies based on the number of the cooperative wireless sensor nodes. An electromagnetic map could then be generated by activating a virtual MIMO-WSN in specific direction by switching on/off certain sensor nodes based on their location (also known as beamforming). Cost effectiveness, system scalability, ease of deployment, adjustability in frequency tuning, and reliability in ELF/VLF direction-finding are the key design factors in virtual MIMO-WSN to overcome the bottlenecks in the existing techniques for ELF/VLF monitoring systems. Simulation results are used to evaluate these quality indices of the proposed virtual MIMO-WSN