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Archive for the ‘Academic’ Category

Control of traveling waves in the Mammalian cortex.

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January, 2005

Source URL:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15698234?

Control of traveling waves in the Mammalian cortex.

Richardson KA1, Schiff SJ, Gluckman BJ.
Author information
Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study
George Mason University
Fairfax, Virginia 22030, USA.

Abstract

We experimentally confirmed predictions that modulation of the neuronal threshold with electrical fields can speed up, slow down, and even block traveling waves in neocortical slices. The predictions are based on a Wilson-Cowan-type integro-differential equation model of propagating neocortical activity. Wave propagation could be modified quickly and reversibly within targeted regions of the network. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of direct modulation of the threshold to control wave propagation in a neural system.

We therefore predicted that we could speed up, slow down, and block propagating neural activity in neocortical slices with the application of electric fields. Furthermore, we predicted that we could affect wave propagation either globally, over the whole slice, or locally, in a specific region of the slice, by changing the geometry of the applied field.

We experimentally confirmed theoretical predictions that threshold modulation can increase or decrease the propagation speed of, and even block, cortical traveling waves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of direct modulation of threshold to control wave propagation in a neural system. Such modulation could be applied rapidly in a locally precise manner. Since neural systems permit direct access to threshold, these findings open avenues to novel neural prosthetic applications including control and containment of seizure propagation.

Related:

Scientists discover that our brain waves can be sent by electrical fields – ScienceAlert

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PETER DOCKRILL

15 JAN 2016

“The implications are that such directed fields can be used to modulate both pathological activities, such as seizures, and to interact with cognitive rhythms that help regulate a variety of processes in the brain.”

The results indicate that electric fields (ephaptic effects) are capable of mediating propagation of self-regenerating neural waves,” they write. “This novel mechanism coupling cell-by-volume conduction could be involved in other types of propagating neural signals, such as slow-wave sleep, sharp hippocampal waves, theta waves, or seizures.”

If their findings, which are reported in The Journal of Neuroscience, can be expounded in further studies, it could help us to better understand how brain waves are associated with things like memory, epilepsy, and healthy physiology.

Source URL:   http://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-discover-new-method-of-brain-wave-transmission-electrical-fields

Ancient “Super-Acoustics” technology used on Malta

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June 16th, 2014 Linda Eneix

Researchers detected the presence of a strong double resonance frequency at 70Hz and 114Hz inside a 5,000-years-old mortuary temple on the Mediterranean island of Malta. The Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum is an underground complex created in the Neolithic (New Stone Age) period as a depository for bones and a shrine for ritual use. A chamber known as "The Oracle Room" has a fabled reputation for exceptional sound behavior.

During testing, a deep male voice tuned to these frequencies stimulated a resonance phenomenon throughout the hypogeum, creating bone-chilling effects. It was reported that sounds echoed for up to 8 seconds. Archaeologist Fernando Coimbra said that he felt the sound crossing his body at high speed, leaving a sensation of relaxation. When it was repeated, the sensation returned and he also had the illusion that the sound was reflected from his body to the ancient red ochre paintings on the walls. One can only imagine the experience in antiquity: standing in what must have been somewhat odorous dark and listening to ritual chant while low light flickered over the bones of one’s departed loved ones.

 

                                                            Hal Saflieni (ca. 3600 BCE)

                                                     Credit: Mediterranean Institute of Ancient Civilizations

Sound in a Basso/Baritone range of 70 – 130 hz vibrates in a certain way as a natural phenomenon of the environment in the Hypogeum, as it does in Newgrange passage tomb, megalithic cairns and any stone cavity of the right dimensions.  At these resonance frequencies, even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations, because the system stores vibrational energy.  Echoes bounce off the hard surfaces and compound before they fade.  Laboratory testing indicates that exposure to these particular resonant frequencies can have a physical effect on human brain activity.

What is astounding is that five thousand years ago the builders exploited the phenomenon, intentionally using architectural techniques to boost these "super-acoustics". Glenn Kreisberg, a radio frequency spectrum engineer who was with the research group, observed that in the Hypogeum, "The Oracle Chamber ceiling, especially near its entrance from the outer area, and the elongated inner chamber itself, appears to be intentionally carved into the form of a wave guide."

The same people who created Ħal Saflieni also engineered a complete solar calendar with solstice and equinox sunrise alignments that still function today in one of their above-ground megalithic structures. There is no question that a sophisticated school of architectural, astronomic and audiologic knowledge was already in place a thousand years before the Egyptians started building pyramids.

 

Full Press Release on Phys.org by Project Organizer, Linda Eneix:  Ancient Man Used “Super-Acoustics” …

Written by bothernews

March 6, 2015 at 3:54 am

“Spin Ice” Promises Breakthrough in Magnetic Technology

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“Spin Ice” promises a breakthrough in magnetic technology affecting both mass storage and energy conservation, according to the online journal Nature Communication. Researchers at London Centre for Nanotechnology(LCN), working with teams of scientists from Oxford and Cambridge Universities, are delving into the field of low temperature physics. Their preliminary findings confirm a previously unknown reaffirmation of the Third Law of Thermodynamics and suggest possibilities for significant improvements for mass storage devices, among other applications.

Broken down into layman’s terms, this “new” technology may make it possible to “transmit” magnetic fields in much the same way that electricity is transmitted through ordinary copper wires. Meaningful applications of this new technology may make it possible to store much larger amounts of data on computer hard drives, as well as faster operating systems deriving from the direct application of magnetic energy to store and retrieve data.

“Spin Ice” Promises Breakthrough in Magnetic Technology

Written by bothernews

March 13, 2014 at 1:42 am

A computer’s microphone and speakers can covertly send and receive data

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This story was originally published by Inside Science News Service.

(ISNS)—Using the microphones and speakers that come standard in many of today’s laptop computers and mobile devices, hackers can secretly transmit and receive data using high-frequency audio signals that are mostly inaudible to human ears, a new study shows.

Michael Hanspach and Michael Goetz, researchers at Germany’s Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing, and Ergonomics, recently performed a proof-of-concept experiment that showed that "covert acoustical networking," a technique which had been hypothesized but considered improbable by most experts, is indeed possible.

Their findings, detailed in a recent issue of the Journal of Communications, could have major implications for electronic security.

Computers Can Be Hacked Using High-Frequency Sound: Scientific American

Written by bothernews

December 24, 2013 at 4:13 pm